Brad Griffitha, USGS, Biological Resources Division, Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University Alaska Fairbanks 99775

Lisa M. Comly, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow 83843

MaryEllen Chilelli, USGS, Biological Resources Division, Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Maine, Orono 04469

Karen R. Rock, Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska Fairbanks 99775

J. Michael Scott, USGS, Biological Resources Division, Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Idaho, Moscow 83843

Timothy H. Tear, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow 83843

James W. Carpenter, Department of Clinical and Veterinary Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan

aDirect correspondence to B. Griffith, USGS, BRD, Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, 209 Irving I, UAF, Fairbanks, AK 99775; (907)474-5067; FAX (907)474-6716;

THIS IS A LIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY - Last updated 9/7/98


An annotated bibliography of literature on bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian translocations published during 1970 through early-1996 is presented. The bibliography is restricted to English language publications on reintroductions, introductions, and augmentations which had the objective of population establishment, reestablishment, or maintenance within the native continent of the released species. Thus the bibliography is biased toward maintenance or enhancement of native terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity. Translocations of exotic species, nuisance animals, and short term "put-and-take" operations for immediate hunting opportunities are excluded. The bibliography includes 1007 citations of papers that were published in journals, symposia proceedings, books, state publications, and technical reports. Pittman-Robertson progress reports were excluded. Cited papers are indexed by taxa, geographical location, and author.


There are two methods for accessing the bibliographies.  You can use DEDICATED SOFTWARE or you can use your WEB BROWSER.

    If you use ProCite V3/4 or Reference Manager V7/8 as your bibliographic database manager, you can search, mark, and export selected records in formats directly useable by these programs by using Ref Web Poster (RWP).  This options allows you to open ProCite V4 databases in "read only" mode.  RWP supports sophisticated searches and allows for viewing of full or abbreviated records in a typical Windows  environment.  It is fast and easy to use with a fairly useful help section.  It will allow export of records to ASCII format, if you do not use a dedicated database manager.  The main limitation is that the records that are displayed do not show the record numbers that are referenced in the Index noted below.
    There are two databases to search in this option.  The first covers ~1970 through late-1989 (TLBib_le89) and all these citations have abstracts.  The second database currently covers ~October 1989 through ~March 1996 (TLBib_8996) and most, but not all, of these have abstracts.   You can search these databases individually or simultaneously.  In these databases, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and general works are all combined.
    A few tips - 1)  The program opens to "Advanced Search"; choosing "Quick Search" will search ONLY the INDEXED fields that include AUTHOR, KEYWORDS, PERIODICAL, and PUBLICATION DATE.   2) The remaining fields are NON-INDEXED fields and include the TITLE and the ABSTRACT of the article.   To search the NON-INDEXED fields, select from the "Fields to Search" choices. To search the entire citation, duplicate your search terms for an INDEXED and NON-INDEXED search and connect the two searches with "OR".  3) By default, an abbreviated record is retrieved by searches.  To see the full record, tap on the little stack of papers icon to the left of the abbreviated record.  4) If searching for an author who may happen to be a co-author, you search may not retrieve all relevant records, no matter how you go about it.  This occurs because the current version of Ref Web Poster expects the author surname to be the first word in a sub-field (delimited by //).  Often, the co-author format is "initials surname" rather than "surname, initials" in these databases.  I am complaining to RSI about this riduculous limiting property of the software.   In the meantime, use your web browser to search the *.html files if you must find a co-author.  5) There is no "wildcard" character.  Just truncate the word.  If you use a "wildcard", Ref Web Poster will look for an exact match.  6)  Browse through the help section of Ref Web Poster as soon as you switch to that part of this website. 7) When exporting records, choose the "Open File" option rather than the "Save to Disk" option if you use one of the supported bibliographic database managers.


    If you do not use ProCite or Reference Manager as your bibliographic database management tools you may want to use your web browser for simple searches and "cut and paste" downloads.  You can not do very sophisticated searches, view multiple abbreviated hits on one page, mark a group of records for export, or export directly into a bibliographic database manager with this option.
    For this option there are six databases that constitute the annotated bibliography. The first four cover the period ~1970 through late-1989 and are separated into three broad taxonomic groupings and a database that covers more general issues. The citations in these four databases all include abstracts and key words. A fifth database is an index to the first four databases. The sixth database contains citations from ~October 1989 through ~March 1996, these are not separated by taxonomic groupings, and not all of them have abstracts or key words.
    Hit the links below to go to these individual databases or to an index to the databases. To search these databases or the index you can use the "Find" option on your browser software (e.g. for Netscape use Edit/Find in Page and Edit/Find Again). To save individual citations you can "cut" them from the web and "paste" them to your wordprocessor. Alternatively, you can save a database to your local machine (e.g. open the database and then for Netscape use File/Save As/Plain Text), then use your wordprocessor or other software to search using keywords of specific interest to you.
    If you use Procite V2.x for DOS  we can provide databases in that format via email; contact B. Griffith as noted above. If you know of additional citations that fit the philosophy of the bibliography that is outlined below, you can submit them to B. Griffith for potential inclusion in revised editions of the bibliography. Please submit electronically in the format of the existing bibliographies.

Birds (~1970-1989) 473K

Mammals (~1970-1989) 385K

Reptiles and Amphibians (~1970-1989) 76K

General Topics (~1970-1989) 39K

Index (~1970-1989) 12K

Late-1989 through early 1996 (birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, general topics) 188K


Translocation is the purposeful transport and intentional release of organisms to the wild in an attempt to establish, reestablish, or augment a population (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. Nat. Resour. (IUCN), 1987). Introduction and reintroduction are two terms used to describe subsets of translocations. Introductions release organisms to areas not previously occupied and typically are conducted with species not native to the receiving continent (e.g., pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), chukar (Alectoris chukar), and gray partridge (Perdix perdix) in North America and elsewhere). As habitat in the original range of threatened or endangered species becomes unacceptable, these species also may be introduced to formerly unoccupied ranges on their native continent or archipelago (e.g. Guam rail (Rallus owstoni) in a last attempt to restore the species to the wild. Reintroductions release organisms within the historical range of the species. Reintroductions historically have been used to restore native species decimated by uncontrolled hunting (e.g., elk (Cervis elaphus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), bison (Bison bison)), and, more recently, to restore populations of threatened or endangered species that have succumbed to various maladies (e.g., Aleutian Canada Goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum)).

The annotated bibliography is biased and focuses on maintenance or enhancement of native terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity. Thus we emphasize translocations which have the objective of population establishment, reestablishment, or maintenance within the native continent of the released species. We excluded introductions of non-native species, movements of "nuisance" animals, and "stocking" primarily for immediate hunting opportunities.

In the face of escalating habitat alteration, habitat fragmentation, and increasing extinction rates, translocation is here to stay. It will be used to maintain community composition and bolster genetic heterogeneity in isolated habitat fragments that have high extinction rates and limited natural interchange with adjacent similar habitats. Translocation will also be used to establish satellite populations and reduce the risk of species loss due to catastrophic events, and to speed the recovery of species whose habitats have recovered or where limiting factors have been brought under control.

Translocation is expensive, may risk rare organisms, and is subject to intense public scrutiny, yet many of the basic questions regarding the endeavor are inadequately addressed. Attempts to evaluate the success of translocations have been hampered by the lack of adequate data on handling protocol, release methods, and the fate of translocated organisms (Scott and Carpenter, 1987, Auk 104:544-545) and "Most present reintroductions proceed on scientific foundations more accidental than specific" (Conway, 1988, Conserv. Biol. 2:132-143). Recent analysis of native terrestrial vertebrate translocations (Griffith et al., 1989, Science 245:477-480; Wolf et al., 1996, Conserv. Biol. 10:1142-1154; Wolf et al., 1998, Biol. Conserv. (in press)) and analysis of non-native vertebrate invasions by Newsome and Noble (1986, Pages 1-20 in R.H. Groves and J.J. Burdon, eds. Ecology of biological invasions. Cambridge Univ. Press, NY.) provide a basis for identifying types of translocations that are most likely to succeed, but adequate species specific data is still lacking. In fact, Griffith et al. (1989, Science 245:477-480) found that only 27% of surveyed conservation agencies had standard operating procedures that specified the types of information to be recorded when conducting translocations.

Use of translocation to assist in the maintenance of biological diversity of native species adds urgency to the development and dissemination of effective procedures. One of the best sources of information on the effectiveness of various procedures is the experience of others and that motivated us to compile this annotated bibliography of wildlife translocations. We hope the bibliography will facilitate information retrieval, introduce practitioners to the breadth of work that has been conducted, and encourage rigorous data recording, analysis, and dissemination.

Although we excluded coverage of fishes, invertebrates, and non-native species, there is substantial literature on the translocation of fishes (R. L. Welcomme, 1988, International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fish Tech. Pap., (294):318pp.), and invasions of non-native terrestrial vertebrates. Interested readers should consult C. Lever (1985, Naturalized mammals of the world. Longman, Inc., New York.) for a compilation of nonnative mammal translocations and J.L. Long (1981, Introduced birds of the world: the worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Universe Books, New York) for a compilation of non-native bird translocations. J. Diamond and T.J. Cade (1986, Pages 65-89 in J. Diamond and T.J. Case, eds. Community ecology. Harper and Row Publ. Inc., New York) provide a comprehensive overview of introductions and invasions.


The bibliography only contains articles written in English on translocations of native vertebrates. We did not have the resources to translate non-English articles. Due to the English language restriction, our results are biased toward North American translocations. Except for theses, all items in the bibliography had to be published.

In preparing the bibliography, we found a variety of terms used to describe the movement of animals from one location to another. These included translocation, reintroduction, introduction, restocking, stocking, transplanting, repatriation, augmentation, marooning, and invasions.

We constructed the bibliography by searching the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Reference Service database, the Wildlife Review-Database, the commercial databases provided by BRS Information Technologies, McLean, Virginia, and by obtaining articles from cooperators. The Wildlife Review-Database is a compilation of the quarterly publication, Wildlife Review, beginning with the March 1971 issue. Our search covered March 1971 to December 1989. We also searched the following BRS databases covering the time periods indicated in parentheses: BIOSIS (1970-1989); Zoological Record (1978-1989); AGRICOLA (1970-1989); CAB Abstracts (1972-1989); and Dissertation Abstracts (1861-1989). Our computer searches were conducted in September, 1989 using the following key words: translocation, reintroduction, introduction, restocking, stocking, transplant, relocation, reestablishment, release, restoration, recovery, hacking, fostering, and cross-fostering. As a result of electronic database coverage, the bibliography primarily covers the period 1970 to September 1989. Readers should consult literature cited sections of items in this annotated bibliography for coverage of the early translocation literature. Additional computer searches were conducted to obtain material that was indexed from late-1989 to early 1996. Material from late-1989 through early-1996 is in a separate bibliography noted above.

Additional citations were provided by cooperators or were taken from several taxonomically oriented bibliographies (Lincer, J.L. 1978. Working bibliography of the Bald Eagle. Nat. Wildl. Fed. Sci. and Tech. Ser. No. 2.; Porter, R.D., M.A. Jenkins, and A.L. Gaski. 1987. Working bibliography of the Peregrine Falcon. Nat. Wildl. Fed. Sci. and Tech. Ser. No. 9.; Garcelon, D.K., and G.W. Roemer, eds. 1988. A bibliography on raptor reintroduction. Appendix in Proc. Int. Symp. Raptor Reintroduction, 1985. Instit. Wildl. Studies, Arcata, CA).

Our initial searches yielded ~2,500 citations but missed work where one of our search words did not appear in the title, key words, or abstract. From the original searches we deleted items we were unable to obtain, work covering introductions of non-native species, Pittman-Robertson reports, Endangered Species Technical Bulletins, recovery plans, environmental impact statements, popular magazines, newsletters, and other gray literature. Most deletions were of non-native introductions. We excluded Pittman-Robertson progress reports due to their quantity and the difficulty of obtaining them. After deletions there were 815 citations from journals, symposia proceedings, books, state publications, dissertations, theses, and technical reports remaining for ~1970 -1989 and an additional 186 citations from late-1989 to early-1996.

The annotations included in this bibliography came from several sources, and codes at the end of the abstract field indicate the source. Authors' abstracts (AA), introductions (AI), conclusions (AC), or summaries (AS) were used verbatim when available. Where none of these were available, an abstract was prepared by one of the bibliography authors and denoted (LCA, BGA, MCA, KRA, or JCA). Abstracts written by the bibliography authors emphasize the theme of this bibliography rather than the theme of the paper.

Each citation is followed by a series of key words. Only words not found in the title or abstract of each citation were included as key words. Computer searching capabilities permit complete record searching, therefore it was not necessary to duplicate words appearing elsewhere in the record. The following key word categories were included with each citation for the ~1970-1989 material: common, scientific, and family names; geographic location; decade of specific translocations; and other words that referred to the theme of the article. Items with an "Abstract only" notation in the key word field were published simply as an abstract. We included these items because the abstract may be the only published record of the translocation.

The bibliography is organized by taxonomic classes (Birds, Mammals, and Reptiles/Amphibians). Articles that did not fall into one of these categories are included under General Topics. These latter were most commonly philosophical or general guideline articles. Within each of the four major divisions, citations are arranged alphabetically by author. Species are indexed by family, scientific name, common name, and geographic location to citation numbers.


This work would not have been possible without the assistance of the Science/Engineering staff (Cindy White, Eileen Chandhoke) and the Interlibrary Loan Department (Libby Soifert) of the Raymond H. Fogler Library, University of Maine. Funding for the work was provided by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units in Idaho and Maine and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Additional financial assistance and procurement of documents was provided by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Species Survival Commission, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Facilities for compiling the bibliography were provided by the Department of Wildlife, College of Forest Resources, University of Maine, U.S. National Biological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Fairbanks Field Station, the USGS, Biological Resources Division, Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, and the Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Benjamin B. Beck, Russell Burke, Tom J. Cade, Charles W. Caillouet, Jr., William G. Conway, Stephen P. Johnson, Devra G. Kleiman, and H. Randolph Perry, Jr., and Ulysses S. Seal kindly reviewed a draft of the bibliography. Kenneth A. Russel proofed the index.


The dissertation titles and abstracts contained in this annotated bibliography are published with the permission of University Microfilms International, publishers of Dissertation Abstracts International (copyright © 1981-84, 1988 by University Microfilms International), and may not be reproduced without their permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by addressing your request to:

University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, Phone (toll free) 1-800-521-3042 

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