Photo of Bob White

Robert G. White

Director, Institute of Arctic Biology
Professor of Zoophysiology and Nutrition

Department of Biology and Wildlife
Institute of Arctic Biology
University of Alaska Fairbanks
Fairbanks, AK 99775
Work:907-474-7648
FAX: 907-474-6967
ffrgw@aurora.alaska.edu


Education
Professional Experience
Awards
Major Research Interests
Publications
Papers in Preparation
Abstracts
Technical Reports



Education

Professional Experience

University Positions

Awards and Recognition

Major Research Interests

Nutritional and physiological adaptations of animals to the environment (digestive function, nutrient requirements, water and energy metabolism, intermediary metabolism); nutritional and physiological ecology, modeling of physiological and ecological processes.

Publications

  1. Young, B.A., R.A. Leng, R.G. White, G.L. McClymont, and J.L. Corbett. 1967. Estimation of energy expenditure from measurements of carbon dioxide entry rate. E.A.A.P. Publ. No. 12, Proc. 4th Symp. on Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals (Warsaw), p. 435-436.
  2. White, R.G. and R.A. Leng. 1968. Carbon dioxide entry rate as an index of energy expenditure in lambs. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 7:335-341.
  3. White, R.G., J.W. Steel, R.A. Leng, and J.R. Luick. 1969. Evaluation of three isotope dilution techniques for studying the kinetics of glucose metabolism in sheep. Biochem. J. 114:203-214.
  4. Hoogenraad, N.J., F.J.R. Hird, R.G. White, and R.L. Leng. 1970. Utilization of [14C] labeled Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli by sheep. Brit. J. Nutr. 24:129-144.
  5. White, R.G., V.J. Williams, and R.J.H. Morris. 1971. Acute in vivo studies on glucose absorption from the small intestine in lambs, sheep and rats. Brit. J. Nutr. 25:57-76.
  6. Luick, J.R., S.J. Person, R.D. Cameron, and R.G. White. 1973. Seasonal variations in glucose metabolism of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) estimated with [U-14C] glucose and [3-3H] glucose. Brit. J. Nutr. 29:245-259.
  7. Luick, J.R., R.G. White, A.M. Gau, and R. Jenness. 1974. Compositional changes in the milk secreted by reindeer. I. Gross composition and ash. J. Dairy Sci. 57:1325-1333.
  8. Holleman, D.F., J.R. Luick, and R.G. White. 1974. Transfer of radiocesium in milk from reindeer cow to calf. In Radionuclides in Ecosystems (D.J. Nelson, ed.), 1:76-80. 3rd Nat. Symp. on Radioecology, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
  9. Holleman, D.F., R.G. White, and J.R. Luick. 1975. New isotope methods for estimating milk intake and yield. J. Dairy Sci. 58: 1814-1821.
  10. White, R.G., B.R. Thomson, T. Skogland, S.J. Person, D.E. Russell, D.F. Holleman, and J.R. Luick. 1975. Ecology of caribou at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. pp. 151-201. In Ecological Investigations of the Tundra Biome in the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska (J. Brown, ed.). Biol. Papers, Univ. Alaska, Spec. Report No. 2. 215 pp.
  11. White, R.G. 1975. Factors regulating the food intake of caribou and reindeer on tundra ranges. pp. 1227-233. In Proc. of the Circumpolar Conference on Northern Ecology. Sept. 15-18, 1975, Ottawa. National Research Council of Canada.
  12. White, R.G. 1975. Some aspects of nutritional adaptations of arctic herbivorous mammals. pp. 239-268. In Physiological Adaptation to the Environment (F. John Vernberg, ed.). In text Educ. Publ., New York.
  13. Person, S.J., R.G. White, and J.R. Luick. 1975. In vitro digestibility of forages utilized by Rangifer tarandus. pp. 251-256. In Proc. First Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (J.R. Luick, P.C. Lent, D.R. Klein and R.G. White, eds.). Biol. Papers, University of Alaska, Spec. Report No. 1. 551 pp.
  14. White, R.G. and A. Gau. 1975. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in the rumen and cecum of reindeer. p. 284-289. In Proc. First Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (J.R. Luick, P.C. Lent, D.R. Klein and R.G. White, eds.). Biol. Papers, Univ. of Alaska, Spec. Report No. 1. 551 pp.
  15. Cameron, R.D., R.G. White, and J.R. Luick. 1975. The accumulation of water in reindeer during winter. pp. 374-378. In Proc. First Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (J.R. Luick, P.C. Lent, D.R. Klein and R.G. White, eds.). Biol. Papers, Univ. of Alaska, Spec. Report No. 1. 551 pp.
  16. Luick, J.R. and R.G. White. 1975. Glucose metabolism in female reindeer. pp. 379-386. In Proc. First Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (J.R. Luick, P.C. Lent, D.R. Klein and R.G. White, eds.). Biol. Papers, Univ. Alaska, Spec. Report No. 1. 551 pp.
  17. Gasaway, W.A., D.F. Holleman, and R.G. White. 1975. Flow of digesta in the intestine and cecum of the rock ptarmigan. The Condor 77:467-474.
  18. Gasaway, W.A., R.G. White and D.F. Holleman. 1976. Digestion of dry matter and absorption of water in the intestine and cecum of rock ptarmigan. The Condor 78:77-84.
  19. White, R.G. and J.R. Luick. 1976. Glucose metabolism in lactating reindeer. Can. J. Zool. 54:55-64.
  20. McEwan, E.H., P. Whitehead, R.G. White and J.O. Anvik. 1976. Effect of digestible energy intake on glucose synthesis in reindeer and caribou. Can. J. Zool. 54:737-751.
  21. Cameron, R.D., R.G. White and J.R. Luick. 1976. Accuracy of the tritium water dilution method for determining water flux in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Can. J. Zool. 54:857-862.
  22. Gaare, E., A. Sorenssen and R.G. White. 1977. Are rumen samples representative of the diet? Oikos 29:390-395.
  23. Reimers, E., R.G. White and P. Rusten. 1977. Use of simulation modeling in the study of population dynamics in wildlife research and management. In (Myrberget, S. ed.) Viltrapport 4:88-103. (Wildlife Research Report, State Game Research Institute, Trondheim, Norway).
  24. White, R.G. and M.K. Yousef. 1978. Energy expenditure of reindeer walking on roads and on tundra. Can. J. Zool. 56:215-223.
  25. Klein, D.R. and R.G. White. 1978. Grazing ecology of caribou and reindeer in tundra system. pp. 469-472. In Proceedings of the First International Rangeland Congress (D.N. Hyder, ed.) Society for Range Management, Peerless Printing, Denver, Colorado, 742 pp.
  26. White, R.G. 1979. Nutrient acquisition and utilization in arctic herbivores. pp. 13-50. In Comparative Mechanisms of Cold Adaptation in the Arctic. (L.S. Underwood, L.L. Tieszen, A.B. Callahan and G.E. Folk, eds.). Academic Press, Inc.
  27. Holleman, D.F., J.R. Luick and R.G. White. 1979. Lichen intake estimates for reindeer/caribou during winter. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:192-201.
  28. Staaland, H., E. Jacobsen and R.G. White. 1979. Comparison of the digestive tract in Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer. Arctic and Alpine Res. 11:457-466.
  29. Van Cleve, K. and R.G. White. 1980. Forest floor nitrogen dynamics in a 60-year-old paper birch ecosystem in interior Alaska. Plant and Soil 54:359-381.
  30. Person, S.J., R.E. Pegau, R.G. White and J.R. Luick. 1980. In vitro and nylon bag digestibilities of reindeer and caribou forages. J. Wildl. Manage. 44:613-622.
  31. Staaland, H., R.G. White, J.R. Luick, and D.F. Holleman. 1980. Dietary influences on sodium and potassium metabolism of reindeer. Can J. Zool. 58:1728-1734.
  32. White, R.G. and R.A. Leng. 1980. Glucose metabolism in feeding and postabsorptive lambs and mature sheep. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 67A:223-229.
  33. White, R.G. and J. Trudell. 1980. Habitat preference and forage consumption by reindeer and caribou near Atkasook, Alaska. Arctic and Alpine Res. 12:511-529.
  34. Kay, R.N.B., W.V. Engelhardt and R.G. White. 1980. The digestive physiology of wild ruminants. pp. 743-761. In Digestive Physiology and Metabolism in Ruminants. (Y. Ruckebusch and P. Thivend). MTP Press Ltd., International Medical Publishers, Lancaster, England. pp. 854.
  35. Batzli, G.O., R.G. White, S.F. MacLean, Jr., F.A. Pitelka and B.D. Collier. 1980. The herbivore-based trophic system. Pp. 335-410. In An Arctic Ecosystem: The Coastal Tundra at Barrow, Alaska (J. Brown, P.C. Miller, L.L. Tieszen and F.L. Bunnell, eds.). Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross. 571 pp.
  36. White, R.G. and J. Trudell. 1980. Patterns of herbivory and nutrient intake of reindeer grazing tundra vegetation. Pp. 180-195. In Proc. 2nd Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (E. Reimers, E. Gaare and S. Skjenneberg, eds.) Directoratet for vilt og ferskvannsfisk, Trondheim, Norway. 799 pp.
  37. Trudell, J., R.G. White, E. Jacobsen, H. Staaland, E. Ekern and K. Kildemo. 1980. Comparison of some factors affecting the in vitro digestibility estimate of reindeer forages. pp. 262-273. In Proc. 2nd Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (E. Reimers, E. Gaare and S. Skjenneberg, eds.). Directoratet for vilt og ferskvannsfisk, Trondheim, Norway. 799 pp.
  38. Holleman, D.F., R.G. White, J.R. Luick and R.O. Stephenson. 1980. Energy flow through the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain during winter in northern Alaska. pp. 202-206. In Proc. 2nd Int'l Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (E. Reimers, E. Gaare and S. Skjenneberg, eds.) Directoratet for vilt og ferskvannsfisk, Trondheim, Norway. 799 pp.
  39. Person, S.J., R.G. White and J.R. Luick. 1980. Determination of nutritive value of reindeer-caribou range. Pp. 204-239. In Proc. 2nd Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (E. Reimers, E. Gaare and S. Skjenneberg, eds.). Directoratet for vilt og ferskvannsfisk, Trondheim, Norway. 799 pp.
  40. Luick, J.R., R.G. White and R.D. Cameron. 1980. Utilization of plasma glucose for energy metabolism and for the synthesis of milk fat and milk casein by the lactating reindeer. Pp. 311-323. In Proc. 2nd Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (E. Reimers, E. Gaare and S. Skjenneberg, eds.). Directoratet for vilt og ferskvannsfisk, Trondheim, Norway. 799 pp.
  41. Trudell, J. and R.G. White. 1981. The effect of forage structure and availability on food intake, biting rate, bite size and daily eating time of reindeer. J. App. Ecology. 18:63-81.
  42. Ringberg, T., R.G. White, D.F. Holleman and J.R. Luick. 1981. Prediction of carcass composition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) by use of selected indicator bones and muscles. Can. J. Zool. 59:583-588.
  43. Ringberg, T., R.G. White, D.F. Holleman and J.R. Luick. 1981. Body growth and carcass composition of lean reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) from birth to maturity. Can. J. Zool. 59:1040-1044.
  44. Batzli, G.O., R.G. White and F.L. Bunnell. 1981. Herbivory: a strategy of tundra consumers. In Tundra Ecosystems: A Comparative Analysis. IBP Vol. 25, 813 pp. (L.C. Bliss, O.W. Heal and J.J. Moore, eds.). Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.
  45. White, R.G., F.L. Bunnell, E. Gaare, T. Skogland and B. Hubert. 1981. Ungulates on arctic ranges. pp. 397-483. In Tundra Ecosystems: A Comparative Analysis. IBP Vol. 25, 813 pp. (L.C. Bliss, O.W. Heal and J.J. Moore, eds.). Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.
  46. Holleman, D.F., D.D. Feist and R.G. White. 1982. Seasonal energy and water metabolism in free-living Alaskan voles. J. Mammalogy 63:293-296.
  47. Staaland, H., D.F. Holleman, J.R. Luick and R.G. White. 1982. Exchangeable sodium pool size and turnover in relation to diet in reindeer. Can. J. Zool. 60:603-610.
  48. Holleman, D.F., R.G. White and J.R. Luick. 1982. The application of isotopic water methods for measuring total body water, body composition and body water turnover. pp. 9-32. In "Use of tritiated water in studies of production and adaptation in ruminants." International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
  49. Cameron, R.D., J.R. Luick and R.G. White. 1982. Water turnover in reindeer: some environmental implications. pp. 189-194. In "Use of tritiated water in studies of production and adaptation in ruminants." International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
  50. White, R.G. 1983. Foraging patterns and their multiplier effects on productivity of northern ungulates. Oikos 40:377-384.
  51. Trudell-Moore, J. and R.G. White. 1983. Physical breakdown of food during eating and rumination in reindeer. Proc. Third Int. Reindeer/Caribou symposium. Acta Zool. Fenn. 175:47-49.
  52. White, R.G. and H. Staaland. 1983. Ruminal volatile fatty acid production as an indicator of forage quality in Svalbard reindeer. Proc. Third Int. Reindeer/Caribou Symp. Acta Zool. Fenn. 175:61-63.
  53. Luick, J.R., B. Sammons, J. Blanchard, P.G. Tallas, B.R. Luick and R.G. White. 1983. Biosynthesis of milk lactose by lactating reindeer. Acta Zool. Fenn. 175:73-74.
  54. Luick, B.R. and R.G. White. 1983. Indirect calorimetric measurements of the caribou calf. Acta Zool. Fenn. 175:89-90.
  55. White, R.G. and J.R. Luick. 1984. Plasticity and constraints in the lactational strategy of reindeer and caribou. pp. 215-232. In: Physiological Strategies in Lactation (Ed. M. Peaker, R.G. Vernon, C.H. Knight). Symp. Zool. Soc. London No. 51, Academic Press.
  56. Staaland, H., E. Jacobsen and R.G. White. 1984. The effect of mineral supplements on nutrient concentrations and pool sizes in the alimentary tract of reindeer fed lichens or concentrates during winter. Can. J. Zool. 62:1232-1241.
  57. White, R.G., D.F. Holleman, C.C. Schwartz, W.L. Regelin and A.W. Franzmann. 1984. Control of rumen turnover in northern ruminants. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 64:349-350.
  58. Blix, A.S., H.J. Grav, K.A. Markussen and R.G. White. 1984. Modes of thermal protection in newborn muskoxen (Ovibos muschatus). Acta Physiol. Scand. 122:443-453.
  59. White, R.G., E. Jacobsen and H. Staaland. 1984. Secretion and absorption of nutrients in the alimentary tract of reindeer fed lichens or concentrates during the winter. Can. J. Zool. 62:2364-3376.
  60. Frisby, K., R.G. White and B. Sammons. 1984. Food conversion efficiency and growth rates of hand-reared muskox calves. In Proc. First Int'l Muskox Symp. (D.R. Klein, R.G. White and S. Keller, eds). Biol. Papers of the Univ. of Alaska, Spec. Report No. 4:196-202.
  61. Holleman, D.F., R.G. White, K. Frisby, M. Jourdan, P. Henrichsen and P.G. Tallas. 1984. Food passage rates in captive muskoxen as measured with non-absorbed radiolabeled markers. In Proc. First Int'l. Muskox Symp. (D.R. Klein, R.G. White and S. Keller, eds). Biol. Papers of the Univ. of Alaska, Spec. Report No. 4:188-192.
  62. Fancy, S.G. and R.G. White. 1985. Energy expenditures by caribou while cratering in snow. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:987-993.
  63. Fancy, S.G. and R.G. White. 1985. The incremental cost of activity. Chapter 7. pp. 143-159. In Bioenergetics of Wild Herbivores (R.J. Hudson and R.G. White, eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
  64. Price, M.A. and R.G. White. 1985. Growth and development. Chapter 9. pp. 183-213. In Bioenergetics of Wild Herbivores (R.J. Hudson and R.G. White, eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
  65. Hudson, R.J. and R.G. White. 1985. Computer simulation of energy budgets. Chapter 12. pp. 261-290. In Bioenergetics of Wild Herbivores (R.J. Hudson and R.G. White, eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
  66. Luick, B.R. and R.G. White. 1985. Oxygen consumption for locomotion by caribou calves. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:148-152.
  67. Fancy, S.G., J.M. Blanchard, D.R. Holleman, K.J. Kokjer and R.G. White. 1986. Validation of doubly labeled water method using a ruminant. Am. J. Physiol. 251:R143-R149.
  68. Kokjer, K.J. and R.G. White. 1986. A simple telemetry system for monitoring chewing activity of reindeer. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:737-740.
  69. White, R.G. and S.G. Fancy. 1986. Nutrition and energetics of indigenous northern ungulates. In Grazing Research at Northern Latitudes (O. Gudmundsson, ed). NATO ASI Series A: Life Sciences Vol. 108:259-269. Plenum Press, New York.
  70. Staaland, H., K. Hove and R.G. White. 1986. Mineral absorption in relation to nutritional ecology of reindeer. In Proc. 4th Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (A. Gunn, F.L. Miller and S. Skjenneberg, eds). Rangifer. Special Issue No. 1:279-287.
  71. Hove, K., H. Staaland and R.G. White. 1986. Calcium absorption in reindeer: Effect of diet and vitamin D. Rangifer, Special Issue No. 1:361-362.
  72. Fancy, S.G. and R.G. White. 1986. Predicting energy expenditures for activities of caribou from heart rates. In Proc. 4th Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp. (A. Gunn, F.L. Miller and S. Skjenneberg, eds.). Rangifer, Special Issue No. 1:123-130.
  73. White, R.G., D.F. Holleman and A.C. Allaye-Chan. 1986. Radiocesium concentrations in the lichen-reindeer/caribou food chain: Before and after Chernobyl. Rangifer. 1:24-29.
  74. White, R.G., D.F. Holleman, M.E. Hubbert and H. Staaland. 1987. Herbivores in cold climates, pp. 465-486. In The Nutrition of Herbivores (J.B. Hacker and J.H. Tennouth, eds.). Academic Press, Sydney.
  75. Fancy, S.G. and R.G. White. 1987. Energy expenditures for locomotion by barren-ground caribou. Can. J. Zool. 65:122-128.
  76. Holleman, D.F., R.G. White and P.J. Lambert. 1988. Analytical procedures for estimating milk intake and yield in steady-state and nonsteady state systems. J. Dairy Sci. 71:1189-1197.
  77. White, R.G., I.D. Hume and J.V. Nolan. 1988. Energy expenditure and protein turnover in three species of wallabies (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). J. Comp. Physiol. B 158:237-246.
  78. Tallas, P.G. and R.G. White. 1988. Glucose turnover and defense of blood glucose levels in arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 91A:493-498.
  79. Staaland, H., N.A. Øritsland and R.G. White. 1988. Digestion of energy and nutrients in Svalbard reindeer. Rangifer 8:2-10.
  80. Schwartz, C.C., W.L. Regelin, A.W. Franzmann, R.G. White and D.F. Holleman. 1988. Food passage rate in moose. Alces 24:97-101.
  81. Feist, D.D. and R.G. White. 1989. Terrestrial mammals in cold. Chapter 9, pp 327-360. In Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology, V. 24 (L.C.H. Wang, ed.). Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.
  82. Holleman, D.F. and R.G. White. 1989. Determination of digesta fill and passage rate from nonabsorbed particulate phase markers using the single dosing method. Can. J. Zool. 67:488-494.
  83. White, R.G., D.F. Holleman and B.A. Tiplady. 1989. Seasonal body weight, body condition, and lactational trends in muskoxen. Can. J. Zool. 67:1125-1133.
  84. Sedinger, J.S., R.G. White, F.E. Mann, F.A. Burris and R.A. Kedrowski. 1989. Apparent metabolizability of alfalfa components by yearling Pacific Black Brant. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:726-734.
  85. White, R.G., B.A. Tiplady and P. Groves. 1989. Qiviut production from muskoxen. Chapter 21, pp 387-400. In Wildlife Production Systems: Economic Utilization of Wild Ungulates (R.J. Hudson, K.R. Drew and L.M. Baskin, eds.). Cambridge Univ. Press.
  86. Sedinger, J.S., R.G. White and W.E. Hauer. 1990. Effects of carrying radio transmitters on energy expenditure of Pacific Black Brant. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:42-45.
  87. Kokjer, K.J., J.P. Floyd and R.G. White. 1990. Distortion correction in open circuit respiration systems. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:291-297.
  88. Parker, K.L., R.G. White, M.P. Gillingham and D.F. Holleman. 1990. Comparison of energy metabolism in relation to daily activity and milk consumption by caribou and muskox neonates. Can. J. Zool. 68:106-114.
  89. Allaye-Chan, A.C., R.G. White, D.F. Holleman and D.E. Russell. 1990. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the Porcupine herd: Lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption. In Proc. of the 5th International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium. Rangifer, Special Issue No. 3:17-24.
  90. Russell, D.E., S.G. Fancy, K.R. Whitten and R.G. White. 1991. Overwinter survival of orphan caribou, Rangifer tarandus, calves. Can. Field-Naturalist 105:103-105.
  91. White, R.G. 1991. Validation and sensitivity analysis of the Porcupine caribou herd model, pp. 334-355. In Proc. of the 4th North American Caribou Workshop. (C. Butler and S.P. Mahoney, eds.). Newfoundland Labrador Wildlife Division, Oct. 31-Nov. 3, 1989, St. Johns.
  92. Murphy, S.M., C.L. Cranor and R.G. White. 1991. Behavioral responses of Delta Herd caribou to low-level, subsonic jet aircraft overflights. In Proc. 4th North American Caribou Workshop. (C. Butler and S.P. Mahoney, eds.). New foundland, Oct. 31-Nov. 3.
  93. Allaye-Chan, A.C. and R.G. White. 1991. Seasonal and between year variation in body condition in caribou of the Porcupine herd (pp. 103-114). In Proc. of the 4th North American Caribou Workshop. (C. Butler and S.P. Mahoney, eds.). Newfoundland Labrador Wildlife Division, St. Johns.
  94. Staaland, H. and R.G. White. 1991. Influence of foraging ecology on alimentary tract size and function of Svalbard reindeer. Can. J. Zool. 69:1326-1334.
  95. Suttie, J.M., R.G. White, B.H. Breier and P.D. Gluckman. 1991. Photoperiod associated changes in insulin-like growth factor-I in reindeer. Endocrinology 129:679-728.
  96. Eastland, W.G. and R.G. White. 1991. Potential effects of global warming on calving caribou, pp460-463. In Proc. Int'l. Conf. on the Role of Polar Regions in Global Change. (G. Weller, C.L. Wilson, and B.A.B. Severin, eds.). Geophysical Institute (UAF) and Cent. for Global Change and Arctic System Research Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, USA.
  97. Suttie, J.M., R.G. White and R.P. Littlejohn. 1992. Pulsatile growth hormone secretion during the breeding season in male reindeer and its association with hypophagia and weight loss. Gen. Comp. Endocrin. 85:36-42.
  98. White, R.G. 1992. Nutrition in relation to season, lactation and growth of north temperate deer, pp. 407-417. In The Biology of Deer. (R.D. Brown, ed.). Springer-Verlag, New York.
  99. Sedinger, J.S., R.G. White and W.E. Hauer. 1992. Heat increment of feeding and partitioning of dietary energy in yearling Black Brant. Can. J. Zool. 70:1047-1051.
  100. Cameron, R.D., W.T. Smith, S.G. Fancy, K.L. Gerhart and R.G. White. 1993. Calving success of female caribou in relation to body weight. Can. J. Zool. 71:480-486.
  101. Kitchens, J.A., R.G. White and S. Murphy. 1993. Predicting energy expenditure of caribou using activity counts: Potential use in disturbance studies. (Expanded abstract) Rangifer 13:117-119.
  102. Suttie, J.M., R.G. White, T.R. Manley, B.H. Breier, P.D. Gluckman, P.F. Fennessy and K. Woodford. 1993. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth seasonality in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) - comparisons with temperate and tropical cervids. Rangifer 13:91-97.
  103. White, R.G. 1993. Energy expenditure of ruminants on pasture, pp. 475-498. In Proc. VII World Conf. on Anim. Prod., Edmonton, Canada.
  104. Murphy, S.M., R.G. White, B.A. Kugler, J.A. Kitchens, M.D. Smith and D.S. Barber. 1993. Behavioral effects of jet aircraft on caribou in Alaska, pp. 479-486. In Noise and Man '93. Proc. 6th Intl. Cong. Noise as a Public Health Problem. Nice, France. July 5-9.
  105. Chan-McLeod, A.C.A., R.G. White and D.F. Holleman. 1994. Effects of protein and energy intake, body condition, and season on nutrient partitioning and milk production in caribou and reindeer. Can. J. Zool. 72:938-947.
  106. Sedinger, J.S., R.G. White and J. Hupp. 1995. Metabolizability and partitioning of energy and protein in green plants by yearling Lesser Snow Geese. The Condor 97:116-122.
  107. Chan-McLeod, A.C.A., R.G. White and D.E. Russell. 1995. Body mass and composition indices for female barren-ground caribou. J. Wildl. Manage. 59:278-291.
  108. Staaland, H., R.G. White and H. Kortner 1995. Mineral concentrations in the alimentary tract of northern rodents and lagomorphs. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 112A(3/4):619-627.
  109. Maier, J.A.K., H.A. Maier, and R.G. White. 1996. Effects of ambient temperature on activity monitors of radio collars. J. Wildl. Manage.. 60:393-398.
  110. Gerhart, K.L., R.G. White, R.D. Cameron, and D.E. Russell. 1996. Body composition and nutrient reserves of arctic caribou. Can. J. Zool. 74:136-146.
  111. Gerhart, K.L., D.E. Russell, D. van de Wetering, R.G. White, and R.D. Cameron. 1997. Pregnancy of adult caribou (Rangifer tarandus): evidence for lactational infertility. J. Zool., Lond. 242:17-30.
  112. Hupp, J.W., R.G. White, J.S. Sedinger, and D.G. Robertson. 1996. Forage digestibility and intake by lesser snow geese: effects of dominance and resource heterogeneity. Oecologia 108:232-240.
  113. White, R.G., J.E. Rowell, and W.E. Hauer. 1997. The role of nutrition, body condition and lactation on calving success in muskoxen. J. Zool., Lond. 243:13-20.
  114. Russell, Donald E., Debbie van de Wetering, Robert G. White, and Karen L. Gerhart. 1996. Oil and the Porcupine Caribou Herd--Can we quantify the impacts? Rangifer Special Issue 9:255-257. (Brief Communication)
  115. Luick, B.R., J.A. Kitchens, R.G. White, and S.M. Murphy. 1996. Modeling energy and reproductive costs in caribou exposed to low flying military jet aircraft. Rangifer Special Issue 9:209-211. (Brief Communication)
  116. Gerhart, K.L., R.G. White, R.D. Cameron & D.E. Russell. 1996. Growth and body composition of arctic caribou. Rangifer, Special Issue 9:393-394. (Brief Communication)
  117. Gerhart, K.L., R.G. White, R.D. Cameron, and D.E. Russell. 1996. Estimating fat content of caribou from body condition scores. J. Wildl. Manage. 60:713-718.
  118. Bubenik, G.A., D. Schams, R.G.. White, J. Rowell, J. Blake and L. Bartos. 1997. Seasonal Levels of Reproductive Hormones and Their Relationship to the Antler Cycle of Male and Female Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 116B: 269-277
  119. Schulman, A.B., & R.G. White. 1997. Nursing behaviour as a predictor of alternate-year reproduction in muskoxen. Rangifer, 17: 31-35 (Brief Communication)
  120. Gerhart, K.L., R.G. White, R.D. Cameron, D.E. Russell, and D. van de Wetering. 1997. Pregnancy rate as an indicator of nutritional status of Rangifer: implications of lactational infertility. Rangifer , 17: 21-24 (Brief Communication)
  121. Rowell, Janice E., Robert G. White, and William E. Hauer. 1997. Progesterone during breeding season and pregnancy in female muskoxen on different dietary regimens. Rangifer, 17: 1-5 (Brief Communication)
  122. ørmo, W., Ø.E. Haga, R.G. White, and S.D. Mathiesen. 1997. Comparative aspects of volatile fatty acid production in the rumen and distal fermentation chamber in Svalbard reindeer. Rangifer, 17:81-95
  123. Lawler, J.P. and R.G. White. 1997. Seasonal changes in metabolic rates in muskoxen following twenty-four hours of starvation. Rangifer, 17:xx-xx. (Brief Communication)
  124. White, R.G., J.E. Rowell, J.E. Blake, and W. Hauer. 1997. Population structure and herd dynamics in captive muskoxen at the Large Animal Research Station, 1988-1994. Rangifer. (Accepted) (Brief Communication)
  125. Russell, D.E., K.L. Gerhart, R.G. White and D. Van De Wetering. 1998. Detection of pregnancy and embryonic mortality of caribou. (Accepted) (J. Wildl. Manage.)
  126. White, R.G. and D.D. Feist. 1998. Stearic acid oxidation in the Alaskan red-backed vole: effects of cold and norepinephrine. (Accepted) (J. Comp. Bioch. Phys.)
  127. Bubenik, G.A., D. Schams, R.G. White, J. Rowell, J. Blake and L. Bartos. 1998. Seasonal levels of metabolic hormones and substrates in male and female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). (Accepted) (Comp. Biochem. Physiol.)
  128. Griffith, B., D..C. Douglas, D.E. Russell, R.G. White, T.R. McCabe, and K.R. Whitten. (Submitted) Implications of a greener north for an Arctic herbivore.(Science)
  129. Maier, Julie A.K. and R. G. White. (Submitted) Timing and synchrony of activity in caribou. (Can. J. Zool.)
  130. Rowell, J.E., R.G. White and W.E. Hauer. (Submitted) 1996. Calving success in female muskoxen on different dietary regimens. (Brief Communication) (Rangifer).

Papers in Preparation

Abstracts

  1. White, R.G. and V.J. Williams. 1963. Absorption of glucose from the small intestine of the sheep: changes during post-natal development. Proc. Aust. Physiol. Soc., Melbourne.
  2. White, R.G., J.R. Luick and R.A. Leng. 1966. Kinetics of glucose metabolism in lambs. Proc. Aust. Biochem. Soc., Brisbane.
  3. Leng, R.A., J.R. Luick, G.J. Judson, E. Anderson, J.W. Steel and R.G. White. 1967. Gluconeogenesis from propionate in sheep. 7th Int'l. Cong. Biochem., Tokyo, Aug. 19-25.
  4. Leng, R.A., J.R. Luick, J.W. Steel and R.G. White. 1968. Glucose entry rate in sheep as measured by three isotope dilution techniques. Fed. Proc. 27:558. (Abstract). Atlantic City.
  5. White, R.G. and R.A. Leng. 1969. Gluconeogenesis and glucose metabolism in starving lambs as effected by cold stress. Proc. Aust. Biochem. Soc., p. 71.
  6. Hoogenraad, N.J., F.J.R. Hird, R.G. White and R.A. Leng. 1969. Bacteria as nutrients for sheep. A study using 14C-labeled B. subtilis and E. coli. Proc. Aust. Biochem. Soc., p. 50.
  7. White, R.G., D.F. Holleman and J.R. Luick. 1971. Field studies on milk intake by reindeer calves. 51st Meet. Am. Soc. Mammalog., Vancouver, B.C.
  8. Luick, J.R., S.J. Person, R.D. Cameron and R.G. White. 1971. Glucose metabolism of reindeer: seasonal changes. J. Anim. Sci. 33:260.
  9. White, R.G. and J.R. Luick. 1971. Water flux and milk intake of reindeer calves. J. Anim. Sci. 33:260.
  10. Luick, J.R., R.G. White and E. Reimers. 1971. Thyroxine secretion rate in reindeer calves. J. Anim. Sci. 33:260.
  11. White, R.G., R.D. Cameron and L.K. Miller. 1971. Fresh water ingestion and water flux in a captive harbor seal, Phoca vitulina. Proc. 22nd Alaska Sci. Conf., AAAS, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, p. 136.
  12. Cameron, R.D., J.R. Luick and R.G. White. 1971. Water flux in reindeer: effects of some climatic and nutritional factors. Proc. 22nd Alaska Sci. Conf., AAAS, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, p. 14.
  13. Luick, J.R., R.G. White and E. Reimers. 1971. Investigation of the adaptive significance of winter growth patterns in female reindeer calves. Proc. 22nd Alaska Sci. Conf., AAAS, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, p. 12.
  14. Person, S.J., J.R. Luick, R.D. Cameron and R.G. White. 1971. Evidence for a highly developed conservation mechanism for glucose precursors in pregnant reindeer. Proc. 22nd Alaska Sci. Conf., AAAS, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, p. 101.
  15. Yousef, M.K. and R.G. White. 1974. Bioenergetics of reindeer, Rangifer tarandus. XXVI Int'l. Cong. of Physiol., New Delhi.
  16. White, R.G. 1974. Grazing by large herbivores in arctic tundra ecosystems. Tundra Biome Alaskan Environmental Seminar, Anchorage, November 19, 1974.
  17. White, R.G., J.R. Luick, D.E. Russell and F.L. Bunnell. 1974. A comparison of four methods for estimating food intake of reindeer and caribou. IV International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology. Sydney, Australia. Aug. 19-23.
  18. White, R.G., F.L. Bunnell and J.R. Luick. 1975. Ecology and management of large grazers. In Science and the Quality of Life, "The Structure and Function of the U.S. Tundra Ecosystems", Proc. Annual Meeting AAAS, New York, January 26-31, 1975.
  19. White, R.G. 1975. Factors regulating the food intake of caribou and reindeer on tundra ranges. Proc. Circumpolar Conf. on Northern Ecology, N.R.C. Canada, Ottawa, Sept. 15-18.
  20. White, R.G. 1976. Lichen in the winter diet: some nutritional strategies of reindeer which may regulate lichen intake. Annual Meeting Nordic Colloquium for Wildlife Research. Grimso, Sweden, March 16-20.
  21. White, R.G. and M.K. Yousef. 1976. Energy metabolism in reindeer: normal seasonal patterns and adaptations to arctic life. Meeting of the Nordic Council for Wildlife Research. Roros, Norway, October 25-27.
  22. White, R.G., E. Gaare, G. Hansson, E. Jacobsen and S. Skjenneberg. 1976. Influence of turnover time on the botanical composition of rumen contents. Meeting of the Nordic Council for Wildlife Research. Roros, Norway, October 25-27.
  23. Staaland, H., R.G. White, J.R. Luick, and D. Holleman. 1976. Mineral balance hos rein: Natruim og kaliumkonsentrasjoner ispyhet som klinisk mal pal reinens natriumbalanse. Meeting of the Nordic Council for Wildlife Research. Roros, Norway, October 25-27.
  24. White, R.G. 1977. Nutrient aquisition and utilization. In Comparative Mechanisms of Cold Adaptation in the Arctic. 28th Annual Meeting A.I.B.S., Michigan State University. 21-26 August.
  25. Luick, J.R. and R.G. White. 1977. Preferences of reindeer for various physical and chemical forms of water. Res. Coord. Meeting on Res. Prog. on Water Requirements of Tropical Herbivores. Joint FAO/IAEA sponsorship, Khartoum, Sudan, 7-10 September.
  26. White, R.G. 1978. Vegetation use and forage consumption by reindeer and caribou in arctic tundra. 29th Annual Meeting Am. Inst. Biol. Sci., Athens Georgia, August.
  27. White, R.G. and D.D. Feist. 1978. Effects of norepinephrine on stearate metabolism in cold acclimated red-backed voles. 29th Annual Fall Meeting Am. Physiol. Soc., Oct. 22-27, . Louis.
  28. Luick, J.R., R.G. White, D.F. Holleman and T. Ringberg. 1978. Use of indicator muscles and bones for the estimation of body composition in reindeer. 29th Annual Fall Meeting, Am. Physiol. Soc., Oct. 22-27, St. Louis.
  29. Holleman, D.F., R.G. White and D.D. Feist. 1978. Body water turnover and energy metabolism in free-living arctic homeotherms. 29th Annual Fall Meeting, Am. Physiol. Soc., Oct. 22-27, St. Louis.
  30. Kay, R.N.B., R.G. White and W. von Engelhardt. 1979. The digestive physiology of wild ruminants. V Int'l. Symp. on the Physiol. of Digest. and Metab. in the Ruminant. Sept. 3-8, Claremont-Ferrand, France.
  31. White, R.G. and J. Trudell. 1979. Patterns of herbivory and nutrient intake of reindeer grazing tundra vegetation. 2nd Int'l. Reindeer/Caribou Symp. Sept. 17-21, Roros, Norway.
  32. Blix, A.S., R.G. White and H.J. Grav. 1979. Thermal protection in neonate muskox. 30th Ann. Fall Meeting, Amer. Physiol. Soc., Oct. 15-19, New Orleans.
  33. Holleman, D.F., R.G. White and D.D. Feist. 1979. Seasonal energy and water metabolism in free-living Alaskan voles. 30th Ann. Fall Meeting, Amer. Physiol. Soc., Oct. 15-19, New Orleans.
  34. White, R.G. and D.D. Feist. 1980. Stearate oxidation in the Alaskan redbacked vole: effects of cold and norepinephrine. 31st Ann. Joint Fall Meeting, Canadian and Amer. Physiol. Soc. Oct. 12th, Toronto.
  35. Luick, J.R., R.G. White and D.F. Holleman. 1980. Milk intake, water metabolism and growth rates in reindeer calves. 31st Ann. Joint. Fall Meeting, Canadian and Amer. Physiol. Soc. Oct 12th, Toronto.
  36. White, R.G. and F.A. Milan. 1981. Reindeer herds of the Kuskokwim 1900-1939. p 108. Proc. 32nd Alaskan Science Conf.
  37. White, R.G., D.F. Holleman, P. Wheat, P.A. Tallas, M. Jourdan and P. Henrichsen. 1981. Voluntary food intake and digestibility of diets by captive muskoxen. pp. 118-119. Proc. 32nd Alaska Sci. Conf. Aug 25-27. Alaska Div. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci.
  38. Holleman, D.F., R.G. White and D.D. Feist. 1981. Seasonal energy and water metabolism in free-living Alaska voles. pp 69-70. Proc. 32nd Alaska Sci. Conf. Aug 25-27. AK Div. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci.
  39. Luick, B.R. and R.G. White. 1981. Studies on the energy expenditure of caribou calves. p 70, Proc. 32nd Alaska Sci. Conf. Aug 25-27. Alaska Div. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci.
  40. White, R.G. 1981. Livestock production in a cold environment with short summers. Symposium paper in "Environmental Effects on Livestock Production." Western Section Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. and Western Branch Can. Soc. Anim. Soc., UBC, Vancouver, June 23-25.
  41. White, R.G. and D.R. Klein. 1982. Muskoxen - their potentials and limitations as Arctic grazers. Invited paper in "Grazing Animals of the Northern Region." 35th Ann. Meeting Society for Range Manage. Calgary, Alberta, Feb. 7-12.
  42. Klein, D.R. and R.G. White. 1982. Comparative aspects of grazing by arctic ungulates. Inv. Paper, Third Int'l. Theriological Congress, Helsinki, August 15-20.
  43. White, R.G. 1983. The lactational strategy of a semidomesticated ruminant. p. 13A. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia 1983. The Univ. of New England, Armidale, NSW Australia, Aug. 1983.
  44. Frisby, K. and R.G. White. 1984. Energy metabolism in young muskoxen. In Proc. First Int'l. Muskox Symp. (D.R. Klein, R.G. White and S. Keller, eds). Biol. Papers Univ. of Alaska, Spec. Report No. 4.
  45. Frisby, K. and R.G. White. 1984. Energy metabolism of moose in early life. Second International Moose Symposium, Uppsala, Sweden.
  46. White, R.G., D.F. Holleman, P. Wheat and P.G. Tallas. 1984. Seasonal changes in voluntary intake and digestibility of diets by captive muskoxen. In Proc. First Int'l. Muskox Symp. (D.R. Klein, R.G. White and S. Keller, eds). Biol. Papers Univ. of Alaska, Spec. Report No. 4:193-194.
  47. White, R.G., K. Frisby, B. Sammons, D.F. Holleman, M. Jourdan and P. Henrichsen. 1984. Seasonal changes in water metabolism of captive muskoxen. In Proc. First Int'l. Muskox Symp. (D.R. Klein, R.G. White and S. Keller, eds). Biol. Papers Univ. of Alaska, Spec. Report No. 4:204-206.
  48. White, R.G. and S.G. Fancy. 1985. Nutrition and energetics of indigenous northern ungulates. Proc. NATO Conference "Grazing Research at Northern Latitudes," Hvanneyri, Iceland, 5-10 August.
  49. White, R.G. and D.R. Klein. 1985. Comparative foraging strategies of northern herbivores. Abs. 0651. Fourth Int'l. Theriological Conference, Edmonton, 13-20 August.
  50. White, R.G. and B.A. Tiplady. 1985. Muskox farming in Alaska. Abs 0650. Fourth Int'l. Theriological Conference, Edmonton, 13-20 August.
  51. Fancy, S.G., J.M. Blanchard, R.G. White and D.F. Holleman. 1985. Validation of the doubly labeled water technique (3HH18O) for measuring CO2 output by caribou and reindeer. Abs 0185. Fourth Int'l. Theriological Conference, Edmonton, 13-20 August.
  52. Tiplady, B.A. and R.G. White. 1985. Muskox nursing behavior in relation to nutrition. Abs 0622. Fourth Int'l. Theriological Conference, Edmonton, 13-20 August.
  53. Hove, K, H. Staaland and R.G. White. 1985. Calcium absorption in reindeer: effects of diet and 1, 25 - Dihydroxyvitamin D3. Fourth Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp., Whitehorse, Y.T., 21-23 August, 1985. Rangifer. Special Issue No. 1:361-362.
  54. Fancy, S.G. and R.G. White. 1985. Predicting energy expenditure for activities from heart rates of caribou. Fourth Int'l. Reindeer and Caribou Symp., Whitehorse, Y.T., 21-23 August.
  55. Fancy, S.G. and R.G. White. 1985. Predicting energy expenditure for activities from heart rates of caribou. 1985 Arctic Science Conference, Technology and the Scientist, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, September 27-29.
  56. Fancy, S.G., J.M. Blanchard, D.F. Holleman, K.J. Kokjer and R.G. White. 1985. Estimation of CO2 production by caribou and reindeer using doubly labeled water. 1985 Arctic Science Conference, Technology and the Scientist, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, September 27-29.
  57. White, R.G. 1985. Activity Budgets determined by monitoring heart rate, biting rate and a motion switch. 1985 Arctic Science Conference, Technology and the Scientist, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, September 27-29.
  58. Hubbert, M., C.C. Schwartz, R.G. White and A.W. Franzman. 1985. Rumen turnover rates in moose. 1985 Arctic Science Conference, Technology and the Scientist, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, September 27-29.
  59. Tallas, P.G. and R.G. White. 1985. Diet induced thermogenesis in a carnivore, the arctic fox. 1985 Arctic Science Conference, Technology and the Scientist, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, September 27-29.
  60. Tallas, P.G. and R.G. White. 1986. Diet induced thermogenesis in a carnivore, the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). 7th Annual Meeting, Federation of Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., St. Louis, April 13-18, (Fed. Proc. 45:1016).
  61. White, R.G., I.D. Hume and J.V. Nolan. 1986. Comparative energy metabolism in Wallabies in relation to dietary specialization. XXX Int'l Cong., Int'l Union of Physiol. Sci., Vancouver, July 13-19.
  62. Hume, I.D., R.G. White and J.V. Nolan. 1986. Rates of turnover of protein and energy in three species of Wallabies. Proc. 3rd Meeting of Comparative Physiologists, Univ. of Wollongong, 6-7th Dec.
  63. Fancy, S.G. and R.G. White. 1987. Daily energy budgets of barren-ground caribou during spring migration. 2nd Int'l Symp. on the Nutrition of Herbivores., Brisbane, July 6-10.
  64. Hubbert, M.H., C.C. Schwartz, A.L. Franzman, W. Regelin and R.G. White. 1987. Effect of intake on rumen turnover time of moose. 2nd Int'l Symp. on the Nutrition of Herbivores, Brisbane, July 6-10.
  65. White, R.G. and B.A. Tiplady. 1987. Seasonal body weight trends and their significance for reproduction in female muskoxen. 2nd Int'l Muskox Symp., Saskatoon, Oct. 1-4.
  66. Tiplady, B.A. and R.G. White. 1987. Nursing behavior of muskoxen and its relationship with nutrition. 2nd Int'l Muskox Symp., Saskatoon, Oct. 1-4.
  67. Floyd, J., J.K. Kokjer and R.G. White. 1987. Auditory and visual stimulation of heart rate and oxygen consumption of caribou. 3rd North Am. Caribou Workshop. Chena Hot Springs, AK, November 4-5.
  68. Allaye-Chan, A.C., R.G. White and D.E. Russell. 1988. Body composition of adult females of the Porcupine Caribou Herd - a progress report. Pp 169-170. In Cameron, R.D., and J.D. Davis (eds.). Reproduction and calf survival - Proceedings of the 3rd North American Caribou Workshop, Chena Hot Springs, Alaska 4-6 November 1987. Alaska Dept. Fish and Game Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 8.
  69. White, R.G., P.G. Tallas and the late J.R. Luick. 1988. Glucose and fatty acid oxidation in reindeer. Proc. 5th Int'l. Reindeer/Caribou Symp., Arvidsjaur, Sweden, Aug. 18-22.
  70. Holleman, D.F., R.G. White and A.C. Allaye-Chan. 1988. Radio-cesium as a marker for determining food selection and intake in the lichen - reindeer/caribou - wolf food chain. Proc. 5th Int'l. Reindeer/Caribou Symp., Arvidsjaur, Sweden, Aug. 18-22.
  71. Allaye-Chan, A.C., R.G. White, D.F. Holleman and D.E. Russell. 1988. Simulation of lichen ingestion rates for the Porcupine caribou herd based on seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen contents and skeletal muscle. 39th Arctic Sci. Conf. Proc., Fairbanks, Oct. 7-10.
  72. White, R.G., A.C. Allaye-Chan and R.D. Cameron. 1988. Estimation of body condition of free-ranging caribou in vivo. 39th Arctic Sci. Conf. Proc., Fairbanks, Oct. 7-10.
  73. White, R.G., P.G. Tallas and J.R. Luick. 1988. In vivo glucose and fatty acid oxidation in reindeer. 39th Arctic Sci. Conf. Proc., Fairbanks, Oct. 7-10.
  74. White, R.G. 1989. Nutritional Ecology of some Alaskan Herbivorous Mammals. Keynote address 69th Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Mammalogists, UAF, Fairbanks, 11-15 June.
  75. Hauer, W.A., R.G. White and K.L. Parker. 1989. Pubertal body mass in the muskox and a role for body mass in the control of annual reproduction. 69th Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Mammalogists, UAF, Fairbanks, 11-15 June.
  76. Allaye-Chan, A. and R.G. White. 1989. Deposition and mobilization of body reserves in breeding and non-breeding barren-ground caribou 69th Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Mammalogists, UAF, Fairbanks, 11-15 June.
  77. Staaland, H. and R.G. White. 1989. Has adaptation to grazing resulted in a changed functional role of the large intestine of Svalbard reindeer? 69th Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Mammalogists, UAF, Fairbanks, 11-15 June.
  78. White, R.G. 1990. Nutritional effects of lactation, nursing behavior and breeding success of muskoxen, caribou and reindeer. Earthwatch Annual Meeting: Monitoring a Changing Planet. Harvard Science Center, March 10.
  79. White, R.G. 1990. Role of nutrition in relation to season, lactation and growth of deer. 2nd Int'l. Symp. on the Biol. of Deer. Mississippi State Univ. 28 May - 1 June.
  80. Allaye-Chan, A. and R.G. White. 1990. The effects of dietary protein and energy intake on body reserve deposition and maternal investment in caribou/reindeer, 2nd Int'l. Symp. on the Biol. of Deer. Mississippi State Univ. 28 May - 1 June.
  81. Eastland, W.G. and R.G. White. 1990. Potential effects of global warming on caribou calving. Int'l Conf. on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change. Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks 11-15 June.
  82. White, R.G. and W.E. Hauer. 1990. Existence of a critical body weight for initiation of reproduction in muskoxen. Fall Meeting Amer. Physiological Soc., Orlando, FL. Oct 6-10. (The Physiologist 33:A-91).
  83. Kitchens, J.A. and R.G. White. 1990. Energetic costs of low-level jet aircraft overflight in caribou. Fall Meeting, Amer. Physiological Soc., Oct. 6-10. (The Physiologist 33:A-91).
  84. Gerhart, K.L., R.G. White and R.D. Cameron. 1990. Field determination of water kinetics in caribou. Fall Meeting. Amer. Physiological Soc., Oct. 6-10. (The Physiologist 33:A-91).
  85. Allaye-Chan, A., R.G. White and D.E. Russell. 1991. Comparative body composition strategies between reproductive and non-reproductive female barren-ground caribou. Arctic Ungulate Conf., Nuuk, Greenland, Sept. 3-8.
  86. Suttie, J.M., R.G. White, H.H. Breier and P.D. Gluckman. 1991. Photoperiod associated changes in insulin-like growth factor-1 in reindeer. Arctic Ungulate Conf., Nuuk, Greenland, Sept. 3-8.
  87. White, R.G. and W.E. Hauer. 1991. Feeding to lying ratio: its use as an index of milk production and calf growth in muskoxen. The First Arctic Ungulate Conf., Nuuk, Greenland, Sept. 3-8.
  88. Kitchens, J.A. and R. G. White. 1991. Estimating energy expenditure of caribou using programmable radio collars: potential for use in disturbance studies. The First Arctic Ungulate Conf., Nuuk, Greenland, Sept. 3-8.
  89. Kitchens, J.A. and R.G. White. 1991 Estimating energy expenditure using wildlink activity counts: potential use in disturbance studies. Alaska Chapter, The Wildlife Society, Chena Hot Spring, AK, April 11-13
  90. Gerhart, K.L., R.G. White and R.D. Cameron. 1992. Estimating body composition of caribou and reindeer using bioelectrical impedence analysis and body condition scores. The First Arctic Ungulate Conf., Nuuk, Greenland, Sept. 3-8, 1991. Rangifer 12(3):185-186.
  91. Cameron, R. D. and R. G. White. 1992. Importance of summer weight gain to the reproductive success of caribou in Arctic Alaska. Poster presented at the Fifth Australasian Wildlife Management Society Conference, Brisbane, 2-4 December 1992.
  92. Kitchens, J.A. and R.G. White. 1993. Predicting energy expenditure of caribou using activity counts: Potential use in disturbance studies. The First Arctic Ungulate Conf., Nuuk, Greenland, Sept. 3-8, 1991. Rangifer 13(2):117-119.
  93. White, R.G. and W.E. Hauer. 1991. Potential growth and body size of caribou, reindeer and their hybrids. The First Arctic Ungulate Conf., Nuuk, Greenland, Sept. 3-8.
  94. White, R.G. 1991. Husbandry and utilization of muskoxen (Invited paper). The First Arctic Ungulate Conf., Nuuk, Greenland, Sept. 3-8.
  95. Gerhart, K.L., R.G. White, R.D. Cameron, D.E. Russell and D. van de Wetering. 1992. Are seven kilograms of fat necessary for reproduction in caribou? Alaska Chapter, The Wildlife Society Ann. Mtg., Anchorage March 27.
  96. Sedinger, J.S. and R.G. White. 1993. Metabolizability of green plants by lesser snow geese: Understanding body-size evolution in geese? Cooper Ornith. Soc. 63rd Ann. Mtg., Sacramento Calif., 13-18 April.
  97. Gerhart, K.L., D.R. Russell, D. van de Wetering and R.G. White. 1993. Pregnancy in caribou: The effects of body condition and lactation. 73rd Ann. Mtg. Am. Soc. Mammalogists, Bellingham, WA, June 21-23.
  98. Gerhart, K.L., D.R. Russell, D. van de Wetering, R.G. White and R.D. Cameron. 1993. Pregnancy in caribou: The effects of body condition, age and year. 6th International Theriological Congress, U. of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. 4-10 July.
  99. White, R.G. 1993. Energy expenditure of ruminants on pasture. VII World Conference on Animal Production. Edmonton, Alberta, June 28-July 2.
  100. Murphy, S.M., R.G. White, B.A. Kugler, J.A. Kitchens, M.D. Smith and D.S. Barber. 1993. Behavioral effects of aircraft overflights on an Alaskan caribou herd. "Noise and Man 93" Conference, ICBN, WHO, Nice, France, 5-9 July.
  101. Cameron, R.D. and R. G. White. 1993. Importance of summer weight gain to the reproductive success of caribou in arctic Alaska. P. 134 in Proc. 44th Arctic Science Conf., Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Sept.15-18.
  102. Kitchens, J.A., R.G. White, S.M. Murphy and M.D. Smith. 1993. Effects of overflights on movements and activity of caribou. P. 87 in Proc. 44th Arctic Science Conf., Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Sept.15-18.
  103. Gerhart, K.L., D.E. Russell, D. van de Wetering, R.G. White and R.D. Cameron. 1993. What factors influence pregnancy in caribou of the porcupine herd? P. 93 in Proc. 44th Arctic Science Conf., Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Sept.15-18.
  104. Lawler, J.P. and R.G. White. 1993. The effect of woody browse on production of methane in muskoxen. P. 114 in Proc. 44th Arctic Science Conf., Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Sept.15-18.
  105. Russell, D., D. van de Wetering, K. Gerhart and R. White. 1993. Predicting fall body condition of female caribou from winter snow, spring melt, phenology and summer temperature. P. 96 in Proc. 44th Arctic Science Conf., Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Sept.15-18.
  106. Russell, D., R. White, C. Daniel and D. van de Wetering. 1993. Porcupine caribou models: update on linking energy and population models. P. 95 in Proc. 44th Arctic Science Conf., Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Sept.15-18.
  107. White, R.G., A.A. Chan-McLeod, B.A. Barnett, D.M. Schell, D. Russell, D. van de Wetering, K.L. Gerhart and D.F. Holleman. 1993. Food reserves in the Old Crow flats may be critical to high fecundity in females of the porcupine caribou herd. P. 92 in Proc. 44th Arctic Science Conf., Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Sept.15-18.
  108. Gerhart, K.L., R.G. White, R.D. Cameron and D.E. Russell. 1994. Body composition and growth of juvenile caribou. Sixth North Am. Caribou Wkshp. Prince George, B.C., Canada. March 1-4.
  109. Kitchens, J.A., R.G. White, S.M. Murphy and M.D. Smith. 1994. Energetic consequences of low altitude jet aircraft overflights on caribou. Sixth North Am. Caribou Wkshp. Prince George, B.C., Canada. March 1-4.
  110. Luick, B.R., J.A. Kitchens, R.G. White and S.M. Murphy. 1994. Modeling energy and reproductive costs in caribou exposed to low flying military jet aircraft. 6th North American Caribou Wkshp. Prince George, B.C., Canada. March 1-4.
  111. Cameron, R.D. and R.G. White. 1994. Importance of summer weight gain to the reproductive success of caribou in arctic Alaska. Sixth North Am. Caribou Wkshp. Prince George, B.C., Canada. March 1-4. Rangifer, Special Issue 9:397.
  112. Wetering, D. van de, D. Russell, R. White and G. Sasser. 1994. Pregnancy determination in caribou using progesterone and pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) serum assays. Sixth North Am. Caribou Wkshp. Prince George, B.C., Canada. March 1-4.
  113. Russell, D.E., D. van de Wetering, R.G. White, and K.L. Gerhard. 1994. Oil and the porcupine caribou herd--Can we quantify the impacts? (Expanded abstract) Sixth North Am. Caribou Wkshp. Prince George, B.C., Canada. March 1-4.
  114. White, R.G., J.E. Rowell and W.E. Hauer. 1994. Importance of muskox rutting habitat to herd productivity. 59th North Am. Wildl. and Nat. Res. Conf., Anchorage, AK. March 18-23.
  115. Murphy, S.M., R.G. White, M.D. Smith and J.A. Kitchens. 1994. Behavioral responses of caribou to overflights by military aircraft. 59th North Am. Wildl. and Nat. Res. Conf., Anchorage, AK. March 18-23.
  116. Kitchens, J.A., R.G. White, S.M. Murphy and M.D. Smith. 1994. Effects of low-altitude jet aircraft overflights on activity and average daily metabolic rate of caribou. 59th North Am. Wildl and Nat. Res. Conf., Anchorage, AK. March 1-4.
  117. Gerhart, K.L., B Griffith, R.G. White, R.D. Cameron and D.E. Russell. 1994. Growth in free-ranging caribou. 3rd Int Congress Biology of Deer, Edinburgh Scotland. Aug. 28-Sept. 2.
  118. Maier, J.A. Kitchens and R.G. White. 1994. Seasonal changes in activity cycles of caribou. 3rd International Congress on the Biology of Deer. Edinburgh, Scotland, August 28.
  119. Hupp, J.W., R.G. White, J.S. Sedinger and D.G. Robertson. 1995. Retention time of forage, forage intake, and fecal output in lesser snow geese. 8th North American Arctic Goose Conf., Albuquerque, NM. Jan 10-15.
  120. Lawler, J.P. and R.G. White. 1995. Effects of woody browse on dietary efficiency and methane production in muskoxen. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conf., Fairbanks, AK Aug.13-17.
  121. R.G. White. 1995. Does heat increment replace nonshivering thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue in arctic ungulates? 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conf., Fairbanks, AK Aug.13-17.
  122. R.G. White, K.L. Gerhart, D. van de Wetering and D. E. Russell. 1995. Milk composition during late lactation: a tool for the diagnosis of lactational infertility in caribou. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conf., Fairbanks, AK Aug.13-17.
  123. Schulman, A.B. and R.G. White. 1995. Nursing behavior as a predictor of alternate-year reproduction in muskoxen. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conf., Fairbanks, AK Aug.13-17.
  124. Maier, J.A.K. and R. G. White. 1995. Effects of ecological factors on activity patterns of caribou: Implications for management. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conf., Fairbanks, AK Aug.13-17.
  125. Blake, J.E., J.E. Rowell, W.E. Hauer, L. Teal, C.Oomittuk, R.G. White, K. Krieg and D.R. Klein. 1995. Investigation of a high mortality rate in a captive herd of muskoxen. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conf., Fairbanks, AK Aug.13-17.
  126. Lawler, J.P. and R.G. White. 1995. Seasonal changes in metabolic rates standardized to intake in muskoxen following a twenty-four hour fast. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conf., Fairbanks, AK Aug.13-17.
  127. White, R.G., W. Hauer, J.E. Rowell, J.E. Blake. 1995. Population structure and herd dynamics in captive muskoxen at the Large Animal Research Station, 1988-1994. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conf., Fairbanks, AK Aug.13-17. (Poster)
  128. White, R.G., J.E. Rowell, K.L. Gerhart, R.D. Cameron, D.E. Russell, and B. Griffith. 1995. Role of landscape use in the regulation of large herbivore populations--lessons from caribou and muskoxen. The 46th Arctic Division Science Conference. September 19-22. p. 104, Landscapes.
  129. White, R.G., R.D. Cameron, K.L. Gerhart, and J.K. Maier. 1995. Importance to preparturient caribou of stochastic variability in the Arctic landscape. The 46th Arctic Division Science Conference. September 19-22. p.66, Landscapes.
  130. Kruse, J., R.G. White, D.B. Griffith and G. Kofinas. 1997. Sustainability of Arctic Communities: An Example of Integrating Social and Natural Science. 1997 Science Workshop, Land-Atmosphere-Ice Interactions, Arctic Systems Science, Seattle. Science Management Office, ASS-LAII,University of Alaska Fairbanks, p14.
  131. Griffith, B., R. Cameron and R. White. 1997. Potential Impacts of Oil Development on Caribou Forage Quality and Quantity (Project: Sustainability of Arctic Communities). Poster Presentation. 1997 Science Workshop, Land-Atmosphere-Ice Interactions, Arctic Systems Science, Seattle. Science Management Office, ASS-LAII,University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  132. Russell, Don E., Karen L. Gerhart and Robert G. White. 1997. Trade-offs Between Maternal Body Reserves and Calf Growth of Caribou. Proc. 77th Ann. Mtg. Amer. Soc. Mamm. Oklahoma State University, June 15-18, 1997. (Abstract #157)
  133. Gerhart, Karen L., Robert G. White, Don E. Russell, Raymond D. Cameron and Brad Griffith. 1997. Phenotypic Variation in Maternal Investment of Caribou: Effects of Nutrition. Proc. 77th Ann. Mtg. Amer. Soc. Mamm. Oklahoma State University, June 15-18, 1997. (Abstract #158)
  134. White, R. G., J.E. Blake, J.E. Rowell, M. Sousa and A. R. Place. 1998. Terrestrial Mammal Project #6 - Influence of Oil Hydrocarbons in Mink (Mustela vison): Digestibility and Rate of Food Passage. 1998 Restoration Workshop, EVOS Trustee Council, Anchorage AK, January 29-30, 1998.
  135. Blake, J. E., J. E. Rowell, M. Sousa, R. G. White. 1998. Terrestrial Mammal Project #6 - Influence of Oil Hydrocarbons in Mink (Mustela vison): Effects on Reproduction. 1998 Restoration Workshop, EVOS Trustee Council, Anchorage AK, January 29-30, 1998.
  136. Griffith, B., D. C. Douglas, D. E. Russell, R. G. White, T. C. McCabe and K. R. Whitten. 1998. Effects of Recent Climate Warming on Caribou Habitat and Calf Survival: Implications for Management. Proc. Alaska Chapter The Wildlife Society, Annual Meeting. January 16, 1998 p12. Girdwood, AK.

Technical Reports

  1. Luick, J.R., D.F. Holleman and R.G. White. 1971. Studies on the nutrition and metabolism of reindeer-caribou in Alaska with special interest in nutritional and environmental adaptation. 1970/1 Tech. Prog. Rep. on U.S. Atomic Energy Comm. Contract AT(04-3)-310, 100 pp.
  2. Luick, J.R. and R.G. White. 1971. Project 5311: Food intake and energy expenditure of grazing reindeer. pp. 103-105. In The structure and Function of the Tundra Ecosystem, Vol. 1, 1971 Progress Report and 1972 Proposal Abstracts (USIBP) to Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation.
  3. Luick, J.R., D.F. Holleman and R.G. White. 1972. Studies on the nutrition and metabolism of reindeer-caribou in Alaska with special interest in nutritional and environmental adaptation. 1971/2 Tech. Prog. Rep. on U.S. Atomic Energy Comm. Contract AT(45-1)-2229, 84 pp.
  4. Luick, J.R., R.A. Dieterich, D.F. Holleman and R.G. White. 1974. Studies on the nutrition and metabolism of reindeer-caribou in Alaska with special interest in nutritional and environmental adaptation. 1973/4 Tech. Prog. Rep. on U.S. Atomic Energy Comm. Contract AT(45-1)22229, TA <3, 105 pp.
  5. White, R.G., D. Roby and D.R. Klein. 1975. Evidence of caribou use of tundra between Atigun Pass and Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. pp. 50-55. In Ecological and Limnological Reconnaissances from Prudhoe Bay into the Brooks Range, Alaska - Summer 1975 (Edited by J. Brown). 65 pp. Publication of the US CRREL, Hanover, RATE and the US MAB Program.
  6. White, R.G. 1975. Grazing by large herbivores in arctic tundra ecosystems, Alaska. pp. 28-37. In Research on Arctic Tundra Environments 1976 Continuation proposal to US Arctic Research Program, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation.
  7. Luick, J.R., R.A. Dieterich, D.F. Holleman and R.G. White. 1976. Studies on the nutrition and metabolism of reindeer-caribou in Alaska with special interest in nutritional and environmental adaptation. 1975/6 Tech. Prog. Rep. U.S. Energy Research and Devel. Admin. Contract No. E(45-1)-2229-TA <3, Modification 7, 50 pp.
  8. White, R.G. 1976. Grazing by large herbivores in arctic tundra ecosystems, Alaska. pp. 16-19. In Research on Arctic Tundra Environments 1977 Continuation proposal to US Arctic Research Program, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation.
  9. Luick, J.R., R.D. Cameron, R.A. Dieterich, D.F. Holleman and R.G. White. 1977. Industrial development in Alaska and its effects on the nutritional and physiological status of arctic animals. 1976/7 Tech. Prog. Rep. U.S. Energy Res. and Dev. Admin. Contract No. EX-76-S-06-2229 TA <3, Modification 7, 173 pp.
  10. Luick, J.R. and R.G. White. 1977. Preferences of reindeer for various physical and chemical forms of water. United National FAO/IAEA Third Coordination Meeting on Water Requirements of Tropical Herbivores, Khartoum, Sudan, Nov. 7-11.
  11. White, R.G. (Editor) 1978. Biology of muskoxen on arctic ranges: implications for impact by development. 1978 Progress Report 1979 Continuation Proposal to Polar Science Section, Division of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, 31 pp.
  12. Klein, D.R., B. Sveinbjornsson, L. Viereck and R.G. White. 1980. Implications of carbon dioxide induced climate change on animal ecology and socioecological consequences in northern ecosystems. pp. 35-37. In Research Needed to Determine the Present Carbon Balance of Northern Ecosystems and the Potential Effect of Carbon Dioxide Induced Climate Change (Edited and coordinated by P. C. Miller). Workshop report submitted to American Assoc. for the Advancement Sci., 30 June 1980, 44 pp.
  13. White, R.G., D.E. Russell and A.C. Allaye-Chan. 1987. Body composition of adult females of the Porcupine caribou herd: Development of body condition indices and relationships to reproduction. 1987 Annual Report to Canadian Wildlife Service and Northern Oil and Gas Action Program, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs (12 p.).
  14. Parker, K. and R.G. White. 1987. Porcupine caribou herd (PCH) calf development study (1987 report). Annual report to Alaska Department of Fish and Game and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (3 p.).
  15. Sedinger, J.S., R.G. White, W.E. Hauer, F.E. Mann, F.A. Burris and R.A. Kedrowski. 1988. Effect of carrying backpack-mounted radio transmitters by Pacific Black Brant on their behavior, energy expenditure and metabolizability of food. Report to the Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, USF&WS (58 p.).
  16. White, R.G. and K.L. Parker. 1988. Nutritional effects of lactation, nursing behavior and breeding success of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus). 1987 Annual Report to the Center for Field Research and Earthwatch (36 p.).
  17. White, R.G., D.F. Holleman, K.L. Parker, B.A. Tiplady and W.A. Hauer. 1988. Nutritional effects on nursing, milk yield and reproductive success in muskoxen. Final Report to the University of Alaska Foundation and Standard Alaska Production Company.
  18. White, R.G., D.E. Russell and A.C. Allaye-Chan. 1988. Body composition of Adult Females of the Porcupine Caribou Herd: Development of Body Condition Indices and Relationships to Season, Migration and Reproduction. Final Report to Northern Oil and Gas Action Program, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and Environment Canada, and the Canadian Wildlife Service (31 p.)
  19. White, R.G. and W.A. Hauer. 1988. Nutritional effects of lactation, nursing behavior and breeding success in muskoxen and caribou. 1987 Annual Report to the Center for Field Research and Earthwatch.
  20. White, R.G., J. Milne, T. McCabe and N. Felix. 1988. Regional variation in the digestibility of caribou forage in the calving ranges of the Porcupine and Central Arctic herds. To: U.S.F.&W.S.
  21. White, R.G., and A.C. Allaye-Chan. 1988. Seasonal body condition of adult female caribou from the Porcupine herd. To: U.S.F.&W.S.
  22. White, R.G. 1989. Nutritional effects of lactation, nursing behavior and breeding success of muskoxen (Ovibos maschatus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus). 1988 Annual Report to the Center for Field Research and Earthwatch.
  23. White, R.G. 1990. ALASKAN MUSKOX AND CARIBOU. Comparison of lactation, nursing behavior and breeding success of muskoxen and caribou. 1990 Annual Report to the Center for Field Research and Earthwatch.
  24. White, R.G., S. Murphy, A. Kugler. 1990. Quantification of Ruminant Behavior and Physiological Responses to low-level Jet Aircraft Overflights and Development of Energetics Models. Quarterly Report for RWO 36 (ACWRU) to USAF-NSBIT.
  25. White, R.G., A. Allaye-Chan, W. Eastland, K.L. Gerhart, R.D. Cameron and S.J. Fancy. 1991. Final Report USFWS 1002 Studies RWO 30: A. Seasonal and reproductive effects on body composition and breeding potential of barren-ground caribou (Allaye-Chan, White) RWO 30: B. Applications of in vivo techniques to determine body composition in caribou (Gerhart, White, Cameron). RWO 27: Influence of weather on movements and migrations of caribou (Eastland, Fancy, White) Final report to USFWS.
  26. White, R.G., J.E. Blake, M. Sousa and J.E. Rowell. 1991. Final report State/Federal Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Strategic Plan: Influence of oil hydrocarbons on reproduction of mink (Mustela vison). Lead Agency: Alaska Deparment of Fish and Game.
  27. White, R.G. 1992. ALASKAN MUSKOX AND CARIBOU. Comparison of lactation, nursing behavior and breeding success of muskoxen and caribou. 1991 Annual Report to the Center for Field Research and Earthwatch.
  28. White, R.G. 1992. LARGE ANIMAL RESEARCH STATION. SUMMARY REPORT 1980-1992. Science Report, Publications, Student Thesis and Project Research, Science Exchange, Teaching and Public Education. Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775. 25 pp.
  29. White, R.G. 1993. ALASKAN MUSKOX AND CARIBOU. Comparison of lactation, nursing behavior and breeding success of muskoxen and caribou. 1992 Annual Report, Center for Field Research and Earthwatch. 67 pp.
  30. Murphy, S.M., R.G. White, B.A. Kugler, J.A. Kitchens, M.D. Smith, and D.S. Barber. 1993.BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES OF CARIBOU TO LOW-ALTITUDE JET AIRCRAFT. Final Report (Apr. 1989 - Sept. 1993) AL/OE-TR-1994 xxx, Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
  31. White, R.G., JA. Kitchens, and B.R. Luick. 1993. ENERGY EXPENDITURES OF CARIBOU RESPONDING TO LOW-ALTITUDE JET AIRCRAFT. Final Report (Apr. 1989 - Sept. 1993) AL/OE-TR-1994 xxx, Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
  32. White, R.G. 1994. ALASKAN MUSKOX AND CARIBOU. Comparison of lactation, nursing behavior and breeding success of muskoxen and caribou. 1993 Annual Report, Center for Field Research and Earthwatch. 59 pp.
  33. White, R. G. 1995. Comparison of lactation, nursing behavior and breeding success of muskoxen and caribou. 1995 Annual Report, Center for Field Research and Earthwatch. 59 pp.

Document last modified: 11/20/1998 by Andrea Swingley